Naturalism is the view that all of life, indeed everything that exists, can be explained by physical and chemical causes. Such a view also results in every event being caused by a prior physical and chemical cause, to the extent that the universe is causally closed, which means that there are no new causes arising that are not caused themselves. Thus in naturalism, human agency is denied, and no human can originate any action or thought. Naturalists therefore hold that all human action is determined, we cannot but help believe, think, emote, and like what we like, for all our thoughts, emotions, and deeds are determined by prior causes.
Non-philosophical naturalists, such as some in the physical sciences, have not thought through the implications of this. With one breath they will hold to pure naturalism, then with another try to maintain that we can make moral choices and have…
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